Digital connectivity has fostered socio-economic development within EU Member States, but it has also highlighted the potential exposure of individuals, businesses, and public institutions to cyber threats and cyber-attacks. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine has made cyber resilience an ever more pressing subject for European states, as alleged attacks on computer networks and information systems of public and private institutions remain an inherent part of the Russian invasion. Despite the increasing threat posed by cyber-attacks, there is limited information available on the extent and impact of cybercrime in the EU – particularly with respect to businesses and private entities. Underreporting remains one of the main challenges to understanding the real extent of cyber threats.
This policy brief maps the key factors for the underreporting of cybercrime in the context of the business landscapes in three EU Member States – Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Spain. It further provides policy makers with recommendations, placing the priorities on increasing the level of trust between businesses and state institutions through the use of public-private partnerships in the fight against transgressions occurring in the cyberspace.